A paraphrase translates the source’s words into your own voice and your own words. If you copy three or more words in a row, you must put those words in quotation marks and name the source. Just like a quotation, a paraphrase is always cited in your paper and on a separate page at the end.
* Special thanks to Lora Cowell and Nancy Florio for permission to use this information.
When an author has conducted valid research via scientific methods and data collection, their findings may be presented as evidence of fact. Evaluate the credibility of your source (author's credentials + research methodology), then introduce your paraphrase using assertive language such as:
Scholars use evidence gathered through research to develop theories. This interpretation of findings is not always black and white. If an author's interpretation is debatable, present their ideas as "analysis or opinion." You can begin the paraphrase of such ideas with phrases such as:
Use multiple credible authors to support and strengthen your arguments. Be sure that the authors are agreeing with the idea based on their own analysis and expertise. Start by paraphrasing the original idea (with citation), following with a paraphrase of agreement, such as:
Controversial topics generate multiple viewpoints. Acknowledge viewpoints that oppose your main thesis and then COUNTER with evidence or interpretations to support the opposing view. Introduce the opposing viewpoint with a phrase such as:
Adapted from the Purdue Online Writing Lab's Guide to Paraphrasing.