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Citation and Writing

Citation Rules

  1. Kent uses the “Notes-Bibliography” style of formatting for Chicago, which requires footnotes for citations within the body of your writing.
  2. Footnotes are listed numerically from the beginning of the paper to the end, and are found at the bottom of each page of your paper; the footnotes on each page should correspond to the references on that page.
  3. There are two styles of notes in the Notes-Bibliography format: Footnotes and Endnotes.
  4. Use a full footnote the first time a source is referenced (note that in the footnotes, the author’s first name is listed first, which is the opposite of what is done in the Bibliography).
  5. A short note for subsequent references requires the author’s last name, allows for abbreviation of book or article titles, and must also have page numbers.

Footnotes and Endnotes

Rather than in-text citations, Chicago style favors footnotes or endnotes to provide citation within the text of a document. These notes do not take the place of the final bibliography page; instead, endnotes and footnotes strengthen a document’s credibility by providing specific source information for readers. Footnotes in Chicago style generally include the author name, the publication title, publication date, publisher information with the very first citation, and a page number.  

Examples of Footnotes and Endnotes

The following examples show how to create footnotes for material used in the body of your paper (with and without author named in a signal phrase).



Lastname, Firstname. Title. City of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Online Journal:

Lastname, Firstname. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume number, Issue number (Year of publication): Page range. Database Name or DOI or URL.


When debating the use of force, it may be important to remember that “hokey religions and ancient weapons are no match for a good blaster at your side.”1


Han Solo’s  cynicism toward blind faith and antiquated arms were evident in his stance that one is best prepared to resolve conflict while in possession of modern weaponry.2



1. Firstname Lastname, Title (City of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), Page number.

2. Firstname Lastname, “Article Title,” Journal Title Volume number, Issue number (Year of publication): Page number, Database Name or DOI or URL.


2. Lastname, Title, Page Number.